1. Overview of acid dyes
1. History of acid dye:
In 1868, the earliest acid -dye triophane acidic dye appeared, which has a strong dyeing ability but poor in accuracy;
In 1877, the first acid -dye acid A synthesis for wool dyeing was determined by its basic structure;
After 1890, the acid dye invention of the pupa structure was more and more complete;
So far, there have been nearly hundreds of dye varieties of acid dyes, which have been widely used in dyeing fiber such as wool, silk, and nylon.
2. Features of acid dyes:
The acid groups in acidic dyes are generally sulfonate (-SO3H), and the sodium sodium salt (-SO3NA) exists on the dye molecules. There are also individual dyes in the acid sodium carboxyate salt (-coona) as the acidity. Group group.
It is characterized by good water -soluble, bright color, comprehensive chromatography. The molecular structure is relatively simple than other dyes. The dye molecules lack a longer co -co -coexistence system, and the dye is low.
3. Reaction mechanism of acid dye:
Second, acid dye classification
1. Classification according to the molecular structure of the dye -dye will:
Puppet nitrogen (60%, extensive chromatography)
， (20%, mainly blue, green)
Sanfang methane (10%, purple, green)
Miscellaneous category (10%, red, purple)
2. Classification of dyed pH:
Strong acidic bath acid dye: dyeing pH value 2.5-4, good sun exposure, but poor wet treatment, bright color, good dyeing;
Weak acidic bath: dyeing pH value of 4-5, sulfonic acid base in the dye molecular structure is slightly lower, so the water solution is slightly worse, the wetting treatment has better than strong acid bath dye, and the uniform dyes are slightly worse.
Neutrophilic acid dye: dyeing pH value of 6-7, the proportion of sulfonic acid base in the dye molecular structure is lower, the dye solubility is low, the uniform dyeing properties, the color is not bright enough, but the wet treatment is high.
Third, acid -related terms
1. Color stress:
The color of textiles is resistant to various physics, chemistry, and biochemical effects on the process of dyeing and rectifying the dyeing process or use.
2. Standard depth:
The recognized depth standard series defines the medium depth of 1/1 standard depth. The color of the same standard depth is equal to the psychological feeling, so that the color target can be compared on the same basis. At present, there have been six standard depths of 2/1, 1/1, 1/3, 1/1/1/12, and 1/25.
3. Dyeing depth:
Different from the percentage of dye quality and fiber quality (ie, O.M.F), the dye concentration varies depending on the color.
4, color change:
After a certain process, the color of the dyed fabric changes in color light, depth or gorgeousness, or the comprehensive results of these changes.
5. Dip color:
After a certain process, the color of the dyed fabric is transferred to the adjacent sticker fabric, and the stickers are stained with the fabric.
6. Evaluate a gray -like card for discoloration:
The standard gray sample card used to evaluate the degree of discoloration of chromosomes in the color fastness test is generally called a torrent card.
7. Evaluate the gray sample card:
In the color fastness test, the standard gray sample card used to evaluate the color of the sticker fabrics is generally called a dusted color card.
8. Color fastness rating:
According to the color fastness test, the degree of discoloration of the dyeing fabric and the degree of coloring of the fabrics are rated to the textile color fastness properties. Except for the light resistance, except for the eighth level (except AATCC standard optical resistance), the rest is the five -level system, the higher the number of levels, the better the fastness.
9. Form fabric:
In the color fastness test, to determine the color of the dyeing fabric to other fibers, and the unsalisted white fabrics processed with the dyeing fabric.
Fourth, acid dye common color fastness
1. Ulexidity of the sun exposure:
Also known as light -resistant color fastness, the ability of textiles to illuminate the color of the color, general inspection standards according to ISO105 B02;
2. Washing (water immersion) color fastness:
The color of the color of textiles on the washing effect of different conditions, such as ISO105 C01 \ C03 \ E01, etc.;
3. Fiction resistant color fastness:
The resistance of the color friction of textiles can be divided into dry and wet frictionality.
4, chlorine -resistant water color fastness:
Also known as chlorine pool fastness, it is generally imitated the concentration of chlorine in the swimming pool for testing, testing the degree of chlorine resistance of the fabric, such as applicable to nylon swimsuit. The detection method such as ISO105 E03 (valid chlorine content 50ppm);
5, sweat resistance stain color fastness:
The color of the color of textiles on human sweat can be divided into acid and alkaline stain accuracy according to the acid and alkalinity of sweat. The fabric of acid dye dyeing is generally detected.