Abstract Dyeing treatment can enrich the color of wooden materials and enhance its decorative effect and product value. Active dyes form a fiber-dye system through covalent bonds and wood fibers, which gives the wood material rich in color and is an efficient wooden chromaton. This article analyzes the effects of active dye dyeing wooden materials from the aspects of classification, dyeing process, and color solid solid method of active dyes, and discusses the effects of the effects of active dyeing officials, dye dyeing factors, and auxiliary effects. Increasing active dye dyeing activity, increasing the fibrous fibrous color fastness after dyeing, and reducing pollutant emissions during the dyeing process.
Keywords wooden material; active dye; reaction activity; color fastness
The natural substances that can provide wooden parts or plant fibers are collectively referred to as wood resource materials (referred to as wooden materials), such as wood, bamboo, rattan, shrub root stems, fruits and various crop straws. Wooden material dyeing technology, through the means of normal temperature, high temperature, pressed cooking and impregnation, attach dyes or modified agents or branches to the surface of the wooden material fiber, thereby changing the color and gloss of the wood material [1-2]. The color of the wood after dyeing can not only imitate the material color of precious wood, but also meet the needs of modern color design, thereby improving the added value of wooden materials . The dyeing effect of wooden materials is mainly related to factors such as dye types, the concentration of dyeing solution, ratio, dyeing temperature and time. The development of high -colored and weather -resistant products is the key technology that the wood dyeing industry is urgently needed.
Active dye is an artificial synthetic dye with refractive water -soluble water. Its molecular contains active groups that can react with hydroxyl groups that can occur with wooden material fibers, which can generate covalent bonds with fiber. The active dye has the characteristics of bright color, good dyeing uniformity, and sound color system. It has the characteristics of low cost, simple method, and high color solidity in the use of staining treatment. 
This article explains the impact of the characteristics of active dyes and the effect of wood material dyeing technology on its upper dyeing effects, anti -changing fading, etc., summarizes the current shortcomings in the dyeing process, in order to effectively improve the dyeing efficiency of wooden materials and reduce dyeing treatment of wooden materials The impact of performance and improving the resistance of dyeing materials to provide reference.
1 Chemical composition and classification characteristics of active dyes
Active dyes are triggered by hair color groups and color aid groups. The hair color group contains unsaturated groups to provide colors for organic compounds, such as ethylene (‒c = C‒), acetylene (‒c≡c‒), 羰 (‒c = O), nitriwi (‒n = O), Nitrodia (=N = N), etc.; And the color aid group is an organic compound of amino, hydroxyl or its derivatives, which plays a deepening color. Because the hair color group selectively absorbs visible light, the dye molecules show different colors. The active dye in the active dye usually has a cross -linking response to the wooden fiber activity group. According to the difference in the active group, the active dye is mainly divided into triazine type, ethylene type, and other types.
1.1 triopizide active dye
Tonyzine -type active dyes are one of the most extensive active dyes. It reacts with plant fibers to replace the nucleus and becomes a side chain for plant fibers , as shown in Figure 1. The permanent active active group of triazine active dyes is derived from the nitrogen -containing rings in the dye molecules -average triazine rings. It has a lower electronic cloud density, has a better response activity, and has a lower activation energy required for solid color reactions.
Fig.1 Binding Process of Triazine Reactive Dyes on Cellulose Fibers
Tonyzine active dyes are mostly used for dyeing of wooden materials such as solid wood and thin single boards with poor permeability. Its high -response activity promotes the adhesion of dyes on the surface and shallow layer of the wood fiber. The characteristics of strong sex. According to the differences of active dyes containing halogen elemental element official energy groups, triazine -type active dyes can be subdivided into one -chlorine aspinzide type , dicrochloride duty , dichlorophydin type  , Fluorine -type active dye , the differences between the halogen system, the differences in the solid color, response rate, and exhaustive rate of active dye solid color, reaction rate, and exhaustive rate of active dyes. Tonyzide active dyes have higher electrical negativeness than chlorine elements in dye to increase the activity of dyes. The increase in the number of halogen elements will also increase the activity of dyes. During the staining process The dye activity of triazine active dyes and one -chlorine -average trianga type shows a trend of decline in order.
1.2 Ethylene -type active dye
Ethylene-type active dyes are active dyes containing ethylene radon or β-hydroxycene sulfate. Compared with triazine active dyes, they are medium reaction activity. The hydroxyl group form a ether bond group. During the dyeing process, the β-hydroxycene sulfuric acid dipate group forms ethylene cymbals under alkaline conditions and forms a common price bond with cellulose in plant fibers (Figure 2). The use of ethylene -type active dyes to dye wooden materials, and generally need to prepare, bleach and other processing of wooden materials to remove wicker, neat silicon and murmicals to achieve better chromosomal effects; dyeing wood material color color color Uniform, with a high upper dyeing rate (≥89.0%) and solid color (≥65.1%), but there are disadvantages such as complex process, difficulty treatment of waste liquid during dyeing, and poor dyeing wooden materials in dyeing. question.
Fig.2 Reaction Diagram of Vinyl Sulfone Reactive Dye and Plant Fiber
KAN et al.  uses ethylene -type active dyes to dye cotton fiber. The results show that its washing color fastness, good drying and humidity resistance, and the sample rating is level 5 color. The ether bond group formed between the ethylene active dye and the wood fiber has a better acid resistance performance than the ester group group. Ethylene -type active dyes have better dyeing effects such as wood fiber, cotton fiber and other materials with small granules, large surface areas, such as hydrolysis and acid resistance.
1.3 Other types of active dyes
Active dyes such as phosphate -based, pyrimidine types are also applied more . Under the conditions of allamine or carbonicide, phosphate-based active dyes have a phosphate reaction with cellulose hydroxyl groups with cellulose surface, forming a phosphate fibromal ester with high-deterioration-resistant stains [12-13]. Phosphate -based active dyes are rich in medium and dark systems, and the brushing effect is good. However, such dyes are disadvantaged with high acidic and long -term decorative colors. Active dye dyeing treatment on the negative effect on materiality.
Pyraizine active dye contains pyrimidine active group, which has a medium activity compared to the triathinist energy group. It has better hydrolysis stability and wet treatment effect . The pyrine -type activated dye is poorly resistant, and is washed with wooden materials before and after dyeing treatment.
2 Active dye dyeing wooden material technology
Immersion treatment is often used by active dye dyeing wooden materials. It can be divided into activated dye control and dyeing technology, active dye catalytic dyeing technology, active dye neutral or low alkaline staining technology, active dye low -salt or salt -free staining technology,, Active dye bath ratio than dyeing technology, etc. [15-16]. Through the design and improvement of the dyeing process method, it can effectively improve the efficiency and quality of wood material dyeing, reduce the generation and emissions of sewage, and reduce energy consumption and save costs.
2.1 Active dye control and dyeing technology
Active dye control and dyeing technology is an accurate staining process that strictly controls each variable in the process of active dye dyeing. It has the characteristics of efficient, accurate, economic, environmental protection. Organic combination . Active dye control and dyeing technology mainly controls dyeing process parameters, such as temperature, dye pH value and concentration, neutral electrolyte concentration and other variables accurately control . The entire dyeing process contains: ① the selection and matching of active dyes ; ② Add electrolyte (certain amount and addition method) ; ③ regulation of dyeing solution pH and alkaline selection ; ④ dye added; add; ⑤ The steps and links of the washing temperature, water flow, and surface active agent after dyeing . The control of active dyes controlling technology is suitable for products with low response activity and easy -to -rescue active dyes and high -colored wood materials, as well as products with high color consistency requirements.
2.2 Active dye catalytic dyeing technology
The introduction of unsaturated groups on the heterogeneous ring of active dyes can greatly improve the reaction activity of dyes. The use of uncleamine cationic nucleus (such as tatromylene, pyridine, acetic acid, etc.) can be used as a catalyst during the dyeing process, which can effectively improve the dyeing efficiency of active dyes . During the dyeing reaction process, the uncleamine cationic substances first form a dye ammonium compound with dyes to promote the reaction of dye and lignic cellulose anion. After the dye-fibrous chromosome structure is released, the cationic compounds are released. With the improvement of the catalyst concentration, the concentration of solid -solidity and hydrolyzed dye in the active dye increases, and the concentration of non -response active dyes is reduced. The catalyst can accelerate the solid reaction, but it will also accelerate the hydrolysis reaction of active dyes. Therefore, when catalytic dyeing is performed, the amount of catalyst needs to be controlled to avoid hydrolysis of dyes. Active dye catalytic dyeing technology can effectively solve problems such as dye dye dye dyeing, low color solid rate, low -dyeing depth, surface floating color, poor water -washing color fastness.
2.3 Active dye neutral or low -alkaline dyeing technology
Under alkaline conditions, active dyes can also greatly reduce the hydrolysis of active dyes while being fixed in wooden materials. However, the application of a large amount of alkaline agent will cause the concentration of waste liquid to increase, increase the amount of sewage , and at the same time change the color of the dyed material; in addition, the high -alkaline solution environment will also reduce the physical and chemical intensity of the material. In order to avoid the above problems, a high -response active dye, low alkaline or neutral active dyeing agent with seasonal amine active groups can be selected for dyeing. The research of Lu Xiaohui  found that the amount of ammonium -soluble copper monuer ammonium salt was 0.5%, and the promotion effect of dyes was the most obvious; the cation contained in daily ammonium salts improved the wetness and dissolution of dyes, improved the dyes and wood The response of the hydroxyl group. The application of active dye neutral or low -alkaline dyeing technology can effectively broaden the application scope of pyrimidine -type activated dyes with acidic active dyes and alkali resistance with pyromine -type active dyes.
2.4 Active dye low -salt or salt -free staining technology
Adding organic or inorganic salts to the active dye dyeing solution can improve the dye dyeing rate, especially when the large bath ratio (dye and dye quality ratio ≥1: 20) can be increased. However, adding neutral electrolytes can cause freshwater salt, and destroy the environmental ecology after discharge. Through development and selection, direct dye dyes can effectively reduce the dependence of active dyes on electrolytes to achieve low -salt or salt -free dyeing . The active red dye SNE is used as a low -salt dye, and the Mongolian (Quercus Mongolica) with poor penetration is dyed through the method of heating and immersion in normal pressure. The results show that low -salt active dyes add to NA2CO3 to 20 g/L and Yuan. It has a better upper dyeing effect under the condition of 12 g/L, which can save 70.0%of the electrolyte, and increase the upper dyeing rate by 16.04%. . For wooden materials that need to be processed for secondary processing, active dye low -salt or salt -free staining technology can reduce the negative impact of organic or inorganic salts on the strength of wooden materials, reduce the concentration of waste dye salt, and have the advantages of reducing costs and saving energy consumption.
2.5 Active dye bath ratio than dyeing
Bath ratio is an important dyeing process parameter, which is related to the concentration and dosage of various reagents such as dyes, neutral electrolytes, and alkaline agents. It is also closely related to water consumption, energy consumption, and sewage volume . In the dyeing process of the active dye bath ratio (≤1: 10), the active dye with a high degree of solubility (low solubility, which will cause dye precipitation, and low -soluble dye can also cause poor upper dye effects). The content of dyeing equipment is used to use high -efficiency salt and alkali stems (reduce the concentration and types of soluble soluble in the waste liquid); At the same time, improve the color of the color after dyeing materials. Yu Juan  Dyeing the Betula SPP with the activity red X-3B, the color difference and the upper dyeing rate are the indicator of the color of the birch. The concentration, bath ratio and dyeing time are 75 ° C, 1%, 1: 10, 60 min, respectively. The above results show that the neutral electrolyte, alkaline agent (such as soda, NACL), and penetration in the small bath ratio are lower than that of the dynamic dynamic dynamic in the conventional dyeing process, while reducing the hydrolysis of dyes. The active dye bath has a significant advantage in the efficient utilization of dyeing active dyes, and can also reduce drying and cost energy consumption and cost after dyeing of wooden materials.
3 Research on Research on Research on Dyeing Dyeing Wood Fiber Reconstruction
Active dyes have a parental nuclear bonus with wooden fiber-mobilized group-eliminate replacement reactions, nuclear bonus reactions, and parental nuclear replacement reactions, forming rich colors. However, in the environment of humidity, oxidation, radiation, the covalent bonds formed between wood fibers and dyes and the hair color group inside dyes are easily damaged, resulting in fading . Therefore, the color fastness of the dyeing material, including the color oxide fastness, hydrolysis resistance, friction -resistant coloring fastness, and soap coloring fastness. In order to improve the color fastness of active dye treatment of wooden materials, wood fiber chemical modification treatment, modified active dye dye performance, auxiliary development, and after -dyeing treatment methods can be used.
3.1 Wood fiber chemical modification treatment
Modify wooden fibers by combining physics, chemistry or two to change the contact interface between dyes and fibers, and improve the transformation of crystal structure and the changes in the transformation of the crystal structure from micro structure. The form of contact between is to achieve the purpose of fixing. Use strong alkali or surface active agents to pre -processed wooden materials (such as corn straw and wheat straw) to remove the silicon on the surface of the surface of the wooden material, so that the contact with the active dye is fully in contact, thereby increasing the upper dye rate and color fastness [ 29]. Using liquid nitrogen , glycerin , and phosphate  Pre -treatment of wooden materials can also change the micro -structures of wood fibers, change the fiber crystal shape, and then expose more chemical chemistry that can participate in chemical reactions. Group group. Using a large amount of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the cellulose surface, through the priest response, use the amine compounds and aminamine as a modified agent to perform aminoly or duplex ammonia, and can also improve the ability to bind dyes. Moisture pre -treatment of wood and chitosi, such as acetylization, chitosan, etc. help reduce the chromosome difference, while improving the optical resistance of dyeing wood.