1. Dye properties
The structure of the dye and its molecular size and shape determine the solubility, diffusibility and affinity of the dye and fiber.
2. The nature and concentration of additives
There are many types of auxiliaries in both dyes and dye baths, such as acids, alkalis, salts, or oxidizing agents and reducing agents, and more are dispersing agents, leveling agents, and accelerating agents. The solubility, dispersion stability, diffusibility in the dye bath and fiber, and dye uptake rate will all have an impact.
3. Dyeing machine function
The function of the dyeing machine, especially the flow rate of the main pump and the heating and cooling capacity of the heat exchanger have a great influence on the dissolution, internal and external diffusion and adsorption of the dye.
4. Process parameters
Process parameters, including dye concentration, dyeing liquor ratio, temperature, temperature rise and fall rate, holding time, setting of dye liquor positive and negative cycle time, and additive method will affect the dye uptake process.
5. Fiber properties
The structure and surface characteristics of the fiber itself will also affect the dyeing process. For example, ultra-fine fiber has a small radius, a large specific surface area, a fast dye adsorption rate on the surface and a large amount of dye. The easier it is for the dye to diffuse into the fiber, the faster the dyeing rate will be.