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Commonly used organic fluorescent dye classification introduction

Views: 5     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-07-25      Origin: Site


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Organic fluorescent dye biomarkers and molecular fluorescent probes have the advantages of simple operation and good reproducibility. They can be widely used in fluorescent immune, fluorescent probe, cell dyeing, etc., including specific DNA dyeing, marking protein, living imaging and environmental environment Studies in areas such as testing. It can achieve the tracking of biomolecules, real -time damage detection, and tracking of biomolecules and their biological processes.

The process of fluorescence

Fluorescence is a common light emitting process in nature. The production process of fluorescence is shown in Figure 1. When the fluorescent molecules located in the base state absorb certain energy, the electrons jump from the base state to the inspiration. The minimum energy level of heavy state of stimulation is fluorescent. The inspirational molecules can also form a triple stimulus stimulus by the way to go through the system, and then release the photon to the base state through radiation. At this time, the light emitted is phosphorus light. At the same time, the molecular light of the stimulating state induces electron transfer, the rotation method of the key or vibration, the formation of the aggregate consolidation and the genetic complex, proton transfer, molecular collision, resonance energy transfer and chemical reactions and other types. The non -radiation method causes fluorescence to quench.

A brief history of the development of fluorescence and dyes

In 1845, the researchers first reported that the quinine (compound 1) solution could emit visible light under light. Subsequently, after Stocks carefully studied the glowing phenomenon of Qining, he believed that Qinning first absorbed light and jumped into the states, and returned to the base state in the form of photons, and emitted a longer light than the inspiration. This phenomenon of photon is defined as "fluorescent".

In 1856, Perkin used aniline derivatives as raw materials to try to synthesize antimalarial drug quinine. It accidentally synthesized the beautiful purple substance, which was also the first artificial synthetic chemical dye-aniline purple (compound 2). The synthesis of aniline purple is also considered the beginning of the modern chemical industry.

Subsequently, a variety of fluorescent dyes, including fluorine, fluorescence, fluorescent, and Lodan Ming have also been successfully synthesized. With the development of science and technology, fluorescent dyes have not only made considerable progress in the past printing and dye fields, but also are generally used in various fields such as photocatalytic, clinical diagnosis, organic optical electronics and sensing.

Commonly used fluorescent dye classification

There are many types of fluorescent dyes. Among them, fluorescein and Landmine are two widely used fluorescent dyes. In addition, common fluorescent dyes include anthocyanins, BODIPY, and square acid Jing.

1. fluorescein

In 1871, Bayer synthesized another typical dye -fluorescentin by aluminyl dilate and phthalate. It has been widely used in small molecule fluorescent sensations. Fluorescentin dye itself has many advantages, such as: better water -soluble, high fluorescent quantum efficiency, and relatively large Moore lighting coefficient. With these advantages, even the excitation and launch wavelengths of fluorescence are only in visible light areas. But fluorescein is still commonly used in biochemical, modern biology and medical research. As shown in Figure 4, in 2013, Zhang Xiaojuan's research group reported a probe 1 with fluorescence as a mother -in -law, which was used for testing for nitride gel ion. Before and after the probe and peroxiditheryl ionic reaction, the color of the probe solution is from scratch, and the fluorescence is from scratch. The development of the probe helps track and detect the active oxygen in the living body, and has great practical value.

2. Rodin Ming

Rodin Ming dye is a typical oxygen compound, which has the advantages of high fluorescent quantum yield, good water solution and high molar elimination coefficient. The most common classic Rodin Ming dyes include Rodin Ming 101, Rodin Ming 6G, Rodin Ming B, and Roddama 110 (Figure 5). Different bases. Their largest launch wavelengths in ethanol are 558 nm, 568 nm, 524 nm, and 588 nm, respectively. The fluorescence performance of Rodin Ming dyes can be easily controlled through the "Kwan-Pass" of the snail ring. When the carboxyl group in the Landmine dye is the pillar endone structure (that is, a closed -loop state), the entire molecular skeleton structure of the dye is a non -coexistence structure, neither absorption nor fluorescence. Therefore, the "Guan-Kai" of Rodin Ming dyes can be used to design the fluorescent enhanced probe.

However, the absorption and launch wavelengths of Roddinine dyes are all visible light areas, and its STOKES displacement is small, and the phenomenon of background fluorescence and fluorescent self -quenching in biological imaging applications. Therefore, classic Rodin Ming dyes are not suitable for living biological imaging applications. At present, some research teams have replaced the oxygen in oxygen -oxygen -loden dyes to silicon, phosphorus, tin, etc., which have synthesized many Rodinming analogs with long wavelengths. For example, the Nagano research team of the University of Tokyo, Japan replaced the oxygen of Rodin Ming with the oxygen of Rodin, and synthesized a series of Silicon Lodan Ming compounds (Figure 6). Compared with the traditional oxygen Landmine, the maximum absorption and launch wavelength of Silicon Rodin has moved about 100 nm. At the edge of the near -infrared area, it is more conducive to tissue and living imaging applications.


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